There is evidence that body dissatisfaction, the use of supplements, and attitudes towards doping in sport are interrelated and contribute to anabolic steroid use in adolescent boys (Yager & O'Dea, 2014).


To date, no doping prevention programs have incorporated a body image focus, and no body image programs have incorporated efforts to prevent Appearance and Performance Enhancing Substance [APES] use.


Our aim is to develop The Three Dimension [3D] Program, a multidimensional intervention that addresses the three major predictors of doping behaviour: i) body dissatisfaction, ii) intentions to use Appearance and Performance Enhancing Substance [APES], and iii) attitudes towards doping in sport.

The project has three phases, as follows:

Phase | 01

Phase | 01 Program development 

In this phase, we aim to work with schools, teachers, other experts, and organisations who work in this area. We will utilise the expertise of these groups to develop and test activities and materials, and optimise some of the evidence-based materials in order to ensure that they meet the needs of schools. We will also work on gamification, and development of digital materials to make the program as engaging as possible.

Phase | 02

Phase| 02 Program Testing 

In this phase, we will conduct a Randomised Controlled Trial [RCT] of the program materials in order to determine their efficacy. Teachers will deliver the materials to 14-16 year old boys and we will use surveys before and after the program (and 3 months later) to see whether participants in the intervention group had a significant increase in their scores on measures of body image, intent to use supplements, and attitudes towards doping in sport.

Phase | 03

Phase| 03 Dissemination 

In this phase we will focus on getting the program out to schools and teachers. We will also develop and disseminate teacher resources that can support program implementation.

Goodform Research

2020 User Insights

Designing body image and eating disorder prevention programs for boys and men: Theoretical, practical and logistical considerations from boys, parents, teachers, and experts.

Doley, J., McLean, S.A., Griffiths., S., & Yager, Z. (2020). Psychology of Men and Masculinities, 22(1), 23, 124-134.

2020 Protocol Paper

Study protocol for Goodform-a classroom-based intervention to enhance body image and prevent doping and supplement use in adolescent boys.


Doley, J.R., McLean, S., Griffiths, S., & Yager, Z. (2020). BMC Public Health 20 (1), 1-11.

2020 Prevalence Paper

Yager, Z., & McLean, S.A. (2020) Muscle building Supplement use in Australian adolescent boys: Cross-sectional relationships with body image and sports engagement. BMC paediatrics, 20(1), 1-9.

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© 2018 by Zali Yager

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